Recent studies of the changing shape of the global value chain and the role of smallholders in agriculture markets in Latin America, Asia, and Africa have confirmed a) rapid growth in the number and distribution of supermarkets and their increasing share of the retail food market, as well as b) changes in the operation of bulk commodity chains. New procurement strategies are reshaping the production, harvest, and post-harvest practices of developing country producers, particularly of horticultural crops. These changes are occurring not only among exportoriented producers but also increasingly among producers selling to local wholesale markets. Centralized product procurement, particularly in the fresh fruits and vegetables (FFV) sector, is creating new market chains that include stringent quality and safety standards. But while there are some clear benefits of these buyer-driven global food chains to the supermarkets and their consumers, there are also emerging doubts about the abilities of the world’s smallholders to take advantage of these new trends.